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Olivier Faugeras

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Journal Articles

Publisher: Journals Gateway

*Neural Computation*(2011) 23 (12): 3232–3286.

Published: 01 December 2011

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In this letter, we propose a general framework for studying neural mass models defined by ordinary differential equations. By studying the bifurcations of the solutions to these equations and their sensitivity to noise, we establish an important relation, similar to a dictionary, between their behaviors and normal and pathological, especially epileptic, cortical patterns of activity. We then apply this framework to the analysis of two models that feature most phenomena of interest, the Jansen and Rit model, and the slightly more complex model recently proposed by Wendling and Chauvel. This model-based approach allows us to test various neurophysiological hypotheses on the origin of pathological cortical behaviors and investigate the effect of medication. We also study the effects of the stochastic nature of the inputs, which gives us clues about the origins of such important phenomena as interictal spikes, interictal bursts, and fast onset activity that are of particular relevance in epilepsy.

Journal Articles

Publisher: Journals Gateway

*Neural Computation*(2010) 22 (4): 906–948.

Published: 01 April 2010

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We address here the use of EEG and fMRI, and their combination, in order to estimate the full spatiotemporal patterns of activity on the cortical surface in the absence of any particular assumptions on this activity such as stimulation times. For handling such a high-dimension inverse problem, we propose the use of (1) a global forward model of how these measures are functions of the “neural activity” of a large number of sources distributed on the cortical surface, formalized as a dynamical system, and (2) adaptive filters, as a natural solution to solve this inverse problem iteratively along the temporal dimension. This estimation framework relies on realistic physiological models, uses EEG and fMRI in a symmetric manner, and takes into account both their temporal and spatial information. We use the Kalman filter and smoother to perform such an estimation on realistic artificial data and demonstrate that the algorithm can handle the high dimensionality of these data and that it succeeds in solving this inverse problem, combining efficiently the information provided by the two modalities (this information being naturally predominantly temporal for EEG and spatial for fMRI). It performs particularly well in reconstructing a random temporally and spatially smooth activity spread over the cortex. The Kalman filter and smoother show some limitations, however, which call for the development of more specific adaptive filters. First, they do not cope well with the strong nonlinearity in the model that is necessary for an adequate description of the relation between cortical electric activities and the metabolic demand responsible for fMRI signals. Second, they fail to estimate a sparse activity (i.e., presenting sharp peaks at specific locations and times). Finally their computational cost remains high. We use schematic examples to explain these limitations and propose further developments of our method to overcome them.

**Includes:**Supplementary data

Journal Articles

Publisher: Journals Gateway

*Neural Computation*(2009) 21 (1): 147–187.

Published: 01 January 2009

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Neural continuum networks are an important aspect of the modeling of macroscopic parts of the cortex. Two classes of such networks are considered: voltage and activity based. In both cases, our networks contain an arbitrary number, n , of interacting neuron populations. Spatial nonsymmetric connectivity functions represent cortico-cortical, local connections, and external inputs represent nonlocal connections. Sigmoidal nonlinearities model the relationship between (average) membrane potential and activity. Departing from most of the previous work in this area, we do not assume the nonlinearity to be singular, that is, represented by the discontinuous Heaviside function. Another important difference from previous work is that we relax the assumption that the domain of definition where we study these networks is infinite, that is, equal to or . We explicitly consider the biologically more relevant case of a bounded subset Ω of , a better model of a piece of cortex. The time behavior of these networks is described by systems of integro-differential equations. Using methods of functional analysis, we study the existence and uniqueness of a stationary (i.e., time-independent) solution of these equations in the case of a stationary input. These solutions can be seen as ‘persistent’; they are also sometimes called bumps . We show that under very mild assumptions on the connectivity functions and because we do not use the Heaviside function for the nonlinearities, such solutions always exist. We also give sufficient conditions on the connectivity functions for the solution to be absolutely stable, that is, independent of the initial state of the network. We then study the sensitivity of the solutions to variations of such parameters as the connectivity functions, the sigmoids, the external inputs, and, last but not least, the shape of the domain of existence Ω of the neural continuum networks. These theoretical results are illustrated and corroborated by a large number of numerical experiments in most of the cases 2 ⩽ n ⩽ 3, 2 ⩽ q ⩽ 3. Abstract Neural continuum networks are an important aspect of the modeling of macroscopic parts of the cortex. Two classes of such networks are considered: voltage and activity based. In both cases, our networks contain an arbitrary number, n , of interacting neuron populations. Spatial nonsymmetric connectivity functions represent cortico-cortical, local connections, and external inputs represent nonlocal connections. Sigmoidal nonlinearities model the relationship between (average) membrane potential and activity. Departing from most of the previous work in this area, we do not assume the nonlinearity to be singular, that is, represented by the discontinuous Heaviside function. Another important difference from previous work is that we relax the assumption that the domain of definition where we study these networks is infinite, that is, equal to or . We explicitly consider the biologically more relevant case of a bounded subset Ω of , a better model of a piece of cortex. The time behavior of these networks is described by systems of integro-differential equations. Using methods of functional analysis, we study the existence and uniqueness of a stationary (i.e., time-independent) solution of these equations in the case of a stationary input. These solutions can be seen as ‘persistent’; they are also sometimes called bumps . We show that under very mild assumptions on the connectivity functions and because we do not use the Heaviside function for the nonlinearities, such solutions always exist. We also give sufficient conditions on the connectivity functions for the solution to be absolutely stable, that is, independent of the initial state of the network. We then study the sensitivity of the solutions to variations of such parameters as the connectivity functions, the sigmoids, the external inputs, and, last but not least, the shape of the domain of existence Ω of the neural continuum networks. These theoretical results are illustrated and corroborated by a large number of numerical experiments in most of the cases 2 ⩽ n ⩽ 3, 2 ⩽ q ⩽ 3. Abstract Neural continuum networks are an important aspect of the modeling of macroscopic parts of the cortex. Two classes of such networks are considered: voltage and activity based. In both cases, our networks contain an arbitrary number, n , of interacting neuron populations. Spatial nonsymmetric connectivity functions represent cortico-cortical, local connections, and external inputs represent nonlocal connections. Sigmoidal nonlinearities model the relationship between (average) membrane potential and activity. Departing from most of the previous work in this area, we do not assume the nonlinearity to be singular, that is, represented by the discontinuous Heaviside function. Another important difference from previous work is that we relax the assumption that the domain of definition where we study these networks is infinite, that is, equal to or . We explicitly consider the biologically more relevant case of a bounded subset Ω of , a better model of a piece of cortex. The time behavior of these networks is described by systems of integro-differential equations. Using methods of functional analysis, we study the existence and uniqueness of a stationary (i.e., time-independent) solution of these equations in the case of a stationary input. These solutions can be seen as ‘persistent’; they are also sometimes called bumps . We show that under very mild assumptions on the connectivity functions and because we do not use the Heaviside function for the nonlinearities, such solutions always exist. We also give sufficient conditions on the connectivity functions for the solution to be absolutely stable, that is, independent of the initial state of the network. We then study the sensitivity of the solutions to variations of such parameters as the connectivity functions, the sigmoids, the external inputs, and, last but not least, the shape of the domain of existence Ω of the neural continuum networks. These theoretical results are illustrated and corroborated by a large number of numerical experiments in most of the cases 2 ⩽ n ⩽ 3, 2 ⩽ q ⩽ 3.

Journal Articles

Publisher: Journals Gateway

*Neural Computation*(2006) 18 (12): 3052–3068.

Published: 01 December 2006

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We present a mathematical model of a neural mass developed by a number of people, including Lopes da Silva and Jansen. This model features three interacting populations of cortical neurons and is described by a six-dimensional nonlinear dynamical system. We address some aspects of its behavior through a bifurcation analysis with respect to the input parameter of the system. This leads to a compact description of the oscillatory behaviors observed in Jansen and Rit (1995) (alpha activity) and Wendling, Bellanger, Bartolomei, and Chauvel (2000) (spike-like epileptic activity). In the case of small or slow variation of the input, the model can even be described as a binary unit. Again using the bifurcation framework, we discuss the influence of other parameters of the system on the behavior of the neural mass model.